Instructional television was not adopted to a greater extent. The effect of CAI was rather small and the use of computer was far from innovative. Online training increased rapidly to the point where entire curriculums were given through web-based training. Simulations are valuable but expensive, with the highest level being used primarily by the military and medical community. The effect from both are too new to be fully measured.
Write Performance Objectives: The teacher writes specific outcomes of student learning. These outcomes outline the skills to be learned, the conditions under which skills are shown, and criteria for success. Measurement of the desired behaviours is represented by the assessment. Develop Instructional Strategy: The teacher will identify strategies to be used that best elicit learning.
In the process of designing effective instruction, Dick, Carey, and Carey found that needs and performances objectives analysis lead to successful design, delivery, implementation, evaluation, revision, and improvement of instruction, which not only empowers the model, but also makes it a roadmap, a guide for other design models with its fundamental steps, along with its standards and benchmarks. Gustafson and Branch argued that all other ID models draw on and are compared to the Dick and Carey model, which has become the standard to all. It is noteworthy that performance objectives, instructional strategy, and criterion- referenced testing are the concepts that are incorporated by the model. Overall, with its iterative, systematic process, the model is a reductionist one from which instructional designers and educators can break instruction down into smaller components Pappas, , and thus immensely benefit for effective instruction in the classroom.
This theory borrowed from behaviorist, cognitivist, and constructivist schools. The basic assumptions based on which this theory was proposed are: The relationship between instruction material-learning is similar to that of stimulus-response. The sub-skills that have to be mastered should be identified. Acquiring these sub-skills result in the intended behavior. Let us look at the methodology in detail.