Main article: Nude beach Clothing optional beaches in the United States vary in the degree to which they are separated from the non-nude public, and whether nudity is officially permitted by local authorities or merely tolerated although illegal. In the Miami metropolitan area, the clothing optional section of Haulover Park is marked only by signs, and is sanctioned and maintained by Miami-Dade County. The beach features food, beach chair, and umbrella concessions; and showers. The long-standing tradition of nudity on these beaches is tolerated.
At the same time doctors of the Natural Healing Movement were using heliotherapy, treating diseases such as TB , rheumatism and scrofula with exposure to sunlight. It was practised in a network of members clubs. The movement gained prominence in the s as offering a health giving life-style with Utopian ideals. Germany published the first naturist journal between and It became associated with pacificism. In , the Berlin school hosted the first International Congress on Nudity.