They are present in both males and females, yet are more prominent in females following puberty. In females, the breasts contain the mammary glands — an accessory gland of the female reproductive system. The mammary glands are the key structures involved in lactation. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the breasts — their structure, innervation, vascular supply and any clinical relevance. Note: This article will consider the structure of the breasts in the female.
Article - Mammography density by breast quadrant not associated with breast cancer
There is no association, according to findings of a study published in BMC Cancer. However, the study did reconfirm that breast cancer was most likely to occur in the upper outer quadrant of the breast in a patient cohort of women. Research to investigate the relationship between quadrant density and tumors occurring in a specific quadrant location has been limited by lack of a reliable method to measure quantitative density on mammography as well as by lack of a standardized method to divide a breast into four well-defined quadrants. A multinational research team from the Department of Radiological Sciences at the University of California in Irvine and hospitals in Taiwan developed a computer algorithm-based segmentation method to quantitively analyze breast density. They used this with an established method to divide a breast into four quadrants based on craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique mammography using the nipple and the chest wall as references. Co-author Min-Ying Su, PhD, a professor of radiology and director of the Center for Functional Onco-Imaging at the University of California, and co-researchers retrospectively reviewed the mammography results of women with pathologically confirmed breast cancer who had not previously had breast cancer. A total of women who had breast cancer located in only one quadrant comprised the patient cohort for evaluation.
Trauma to the chest wall. Treatment options In the majority of cases, it is possible to solve cyclical breast pain by taking OTC over-the-counter painkillers and wearing well-fitted bras. Cyclical breast pain is often unpredictable — it may well just go away in time, and then come back periodically.
Clearly related to the menstrual cycle Unrelated to the menstrual cycle Described as dull, heavy or aching Described as tight, burning or sore Often accompanied by breast swelling or lumpiness Constant or intermittent Usually affects both breasts, particularly the upper, outer portions, and can radiate to the underarm Usually affects one breast, in a localized area, but may spread more diffusely across the breast Intensifies during the two weeks leading up to the start of your period, then eases up afterward Most likely to affect women after menopause More likely to affect women in their 20s and 30s before menopause as well as women in their 40s who are transitioning to menopause Extramammary breast pain The term "extramammary" means "outside the breast. Pulling a muscle in your chest, for example, can cause pain in your chest wall or rib cage that spreads radiates to your breast. When to see a doctor Make an appointment with your doctor if breast pain: Continues daily for more than a couple of weeks Occurs in one specific area of your breast Seems to be getting worse over time Interferes with daily activities Although breast cancer risk is low in women whose main symptom is breast pain, if your doctor recommends an evaluation, it's important to follow through.